Бетон получается в результате затвердения так называемой бетонной смеси, которая состоит из цемента, заполнителя, воды, пластификатора и возможных добавок. Названия отдельных типов бетона, как правило, происходят от используемого в смеси наполнителя, связующего компонента или от окончательной структуры полученного материала.


Бетонные смеси

Путем использования различных компонентов и их количества в смеси получают бетон различных марок. Одну марку используют для возведения фундамента, другую при строительстве мостов. Разница между ними заключается в прочностных характеристиках. В рамках статьи невозможно охватить все марки доступные на рынке, так как постоянно разрабатываются новые, предназначенные для различных задач. Ниже представлены самые распространенные в РФ.

Различия бетона по плотности


Бетон в Ижевске по объемной плотности делится на три основных вида:

  1. Легкий. Плотность находится в пределах 800 – 2000 кг/м³. Для его производства применяют легкие заполнители, такие как пемза или керамзит. Прекрасным примером этого вида бетона является так называемый газобетон (пористый бетон). Используется в основном для возведения небольших стеновых элементов.
  2. Обычный. Плотность находится в пределах 2000 – 2600 кг/м³. Для его изготовления применяют искусственные и природные заполнители. Используют для возведения конструктивных элементов, а также пустотелых стен и перекрытий.
  3. Тяжелый. Плотность превышает 2600 кг/м³. Для производства используют специальную крошку. Применяют при строительстве онкологических больниц и атомных электростанций, потому что характеризуется способностью останавливать ионизирующее излучение.

Различия бетона по заполнителю

В зависимости от используемого заполнителя различают:

  • гравийный бетон;
  • керамзитобетон;
  • лимонитовый бетон;
  • полистиролбетон.

Наиболее распространенным видом является, конечно, бетон на основе смеси с гравием. Бетон с керамзитом, как правило, используют в производстве пустотелых блоков, перекрытий и легких конструкций. Еще одним из легких и относительно новых является полистиролбетон. Для его производства используют пенопластовые шарики, призванные не только увеличить объем, но и увеличить теплоизоляционные свойства.  Лимитовый бетон относится к сверхтяжелым решениям, применяемым при возведении:

  • атомных электростанций;
  • рентген кабинетов больниц;
  • убежищ радиационной защиты.


Приведенная выше информация не раскрывает полностью вопрос видов бетона. Также они разделяются по используемому связующему компоненту, или способу уплотнения.

23 thoughts on “Виды бетона по плотности и заполнителю

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